Class 11 Chemistry NCERT Textbook makes a significant part in the entrance exams like NEET, JEE, UPSC, and various other competitive exams. This makes it a very important subject for the students to pursue their careers in engineering, medicines, technology, and applied sciences.
Chemistry of NCERT Class 11 provides learners with a strong conceptual background of Chemistry, which makes them competent to meet the challenges of academic and professional courses.
The class 11 Chemistry syllabus incorporates logical sequencing of the chapters with an articulation of concepts for better understanding as well as promotes problem-solving abilities and applications of concepts that are useful in a real-life situation for making the subject more relevant, meaningful and interesting.
There are 14 units in the Class 11 NCERT Chemistry textbook.
The List of all Units of Class 11 Chemistry are listed below:
- Unit 1: Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry
- Unit 2: Structure of Atom
- Unit 3: Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties
- Unit 4: Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure
- Unit 5: States of Matter: Gases and Liquids
- Unit 6: Thermodynamics
- Unit 7: Equilibrium
- Unit 8: Redox Reactions
- Unit 9 Hydrogen
- Unit 10: s- Block Elements (Alkali and Alkaline earth metals)
- Unit 11: Some p-Block Elements
- Unit 12: Organic Chemistry: Some Basic Principles and Techniques
- Unit 13: Hydrocarbons
- Unit 14: Environmental Chemistry
Chapter-wise Introduction :
Below given are the Chapter-wise Introduction of Class 11 NCERT Chemistry Textbook.
Unit 1: Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry
This chapter eloquently elaborates Importance and scope of chemistry, historical approach to particulate nature of matter, and laws of chemical combination. The chapter also covers Dalton’s atomic theory, Mole concept and molar mass, Atomic and molecular masses. Students also develop their fundamental understanding of empirical and molecular formula and stoichiometry. The chapter also includes calculations based on stoichiometry.
Unit 2: Structure of Atom
In this chapter, students wade through the discovery of the electron, proton, and neutron, concepts of atomic number, isotopes, and isobars. The unit highlights details of various models of atoms like Rutherford’s model and its drawbacks, Thompson’s model and its demerits, Bohr’s model and its limitations, the concept of shells and subshells, dual nature of matter and light, de Broglie’s relationship, and Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle. The chapter also covers the concept of orbitals, quantum numbers, and shapes of s, p, and d orbitals. Students get familiar with the rules for filling electrons in orbitals and related principles of Aufbau, Pauli Exclusion Principle, and Hund’s rule. Electronic configuration of atoms, the stability of half-filled, and completely filled orbitals are also briefly discussed in the unit.
Unit 3: Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties
This chapter elaborates on the significance of classification, a brief history of the development of periodic table, modern periodic law, and the present form of the periodic table. The chapter also discusses various periodic trends in properties of elements, and nomenclature of elements.
Unit 4: Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure
In this chapter, students wade through basic concepts of chemical bonding and molecular structure like valence electrons, types of bonds and their characters, bond parameters, Lewis structure, valence bond theory, resonance, and geometry of covalent Molecules. The chapter also provides in-depth details on VSEPR theory, the concept of hybridization, qualitative idea of the molecular orbital theory, and Hydrogen bond.
Unit 5: States of Matter: Gases and Liquids
Apart from the pre-requisite knowledge of three states of matter, the chapter provides extensive details on intermolecular interactions, types of bonding, ideal behavior, empirical derivation of gas equation, Avogadro number, and ideal gas equation. Students also learn Boyle’s law, Charles’s law, Gay Lussac’s law, Avogadro’s law in this chapter. The chapter also provides elementary ideas of Kinetic energy and molecular speeds, deviation from ideal behavior, liquefaction of gases, and critical temperature. Students also get a Qualitative idea about Liquid state in the chapter.
Unit 6: Thermodynamics
Students get familiar with fundamental terms, three laws of thermodynamics and related concepts like internal energy and enthalpy, heat capacity and specific heat, measurement of ΔU and ΔH, bond dissociation, combustion, formation, atomization, sublimation, phase transition, ionization, solution, and dilution. The chapter also includes Hess’s law of constant heat summation and Gibbs energy change.
Unit 7: Equilibrium
Nature of Equilibrium in physical and chemical processes and factors affecting it. Le Chatelier’s principle; ionic equilibrium, ionization of acids and bases, strong and weak electrolytes, ionization of polybasic acids, and acid Strength. Students also understand the concept of pH., Hydrolysis of salts, buffer solutions, Henderson equation, solubility product, and common ion effect thoroughly.
Unit 8: Redox Reactions
This chapter focuses on the concept of oxidation, reduction, and oxidation number. The chapter provides extensive practice of balancing redox reactions and detailed information about applications of redox reactions.
Unit 9 Hydrogen
The chapter comprehends the occurrence and position of hydrogen in the periodic table. Students get in-depth information about isotopes, properties, preparation, and uses of Hydrogen. Students also learn about hydrides, physical-chemical properties of water, hydrogen peroxide, and hydrogen as a fuel.
Unit 10: s- Block Elements (Alkali and Alkaline Earth Metals)
S- Block elements include Group 1 and Group 2 elements in the periodic table. The chapter covers the electronic configuration, occurrence, and anomaly in the properties of the first element of each group, diagonal relationship, and trends in the variation of properties: variation in ionization enthalpy, atomic and ionic radii, and trends in chemical reactivity with water, oxygen, halogens and hydrogen and uses. Students also learn the preparation and properties of some important compounds like Sodium carbonate, Sodium bicarbonate, sodium hydroxide, sodium hydrogen carbonate, and sodium chloride. The chapter also includes the biological importance of some chemical compounds like sodium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium; properties of calcium oxide and calcium carbonate, industrial use of lime and limestone.
Unit 11: Some p-Block Elements
P-block in the periodic table includes elements of group 13 and group 14. Topics covered under both groups are as follows:
Group 13 Elements: – This part enlists general introduction, occurrence, electronic configuration variation of properties, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous properties of the first element of group 13 elements. The unit also includes oxidation states, physical and chemical properties of Boron, detailed description of the properties of some important compounds like borax, boric acids, boron hydrides. This part also covers the uses of Aluminium and their reactions with acids and alkalis.
Group 14 Elements: – In this part, students learn about the general introduction, occurrence, electronic configuration, variation of properties, trends in chemical reactivity, and anomalous properties of the first element of group 14 elements. The unit also discusses oxidation states of carbon, catenation, allotropic forms, physical and chemical properties and uses of some important compounds. This section also enlists a few uses of important compounds of silicon like silicon tetrachloride, silicones, silicates, and zeolite.
Unit 12: Organic Chemistry: Some Basic Principles and Techniques
This chapter encapsulates classification and IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds, methods of purification, qualitative and quantitative analysis, Electronic displacements in a covalent bond, Homolytic and heterolytic fission of a covalent bond, electrophiles, nucleophiles and types of organic reactions.
Unit 13: Hydrocarbons
This unit introduces a classification of Hydrocarbons into Aliphatic and Aromatic hydrocarbons.
Students get familiar with different types of Aliphatic Hydrocarbons and their detailed descriptions. The unit describes nomenclature, isomerism, conformations and physical properties of Alkane; chemical
Reactions, free radical mechanism of halogenation, combustion, and pyrolysis.
Students also get familiar with Alkenes by knowing its nomenclature, structure of double bond in ethane, geometrical isomerism, physical properties, and methods of preparation. Chemical reactions of Alkenes are discussed thoroughly with the addition of hydrogen, halogen, and water and hydrogen halides. This part also includes Markovnikov’s addition and peroxide effect, ozonolysis, oxidation, and mechanism of electrophilic addition.
In Alkynes students learn it’s the nomenclature, structure of triple bond by studying ethyne, physical properties, methods of preparation of Alkynes, chemical reactions including the acidic character of alkynes, addition reaction of hydrogen, halogens, hydrogen halides and water.
The other part of the unit gives a detailed account of Aromatic hydrocarbons, their Introduction, IUPAC nomenclature; resonance, and aromaticity of Benzene. The unit also covers chemical properties of aromatic hydrocarbons, mechanism of electrophilic substitution, sulphonation, halogenation, nitration, Frieda Craft’s alkylation, and acylation; students also get a short and compendious account of the directive influence of the functional group in mono-substituted benzene, carcinogenicity, and toxicity.
Unit 14: Environmental Chemistry
This chapter addresses various issues related to the environment which include air, water and soil pollution, chemical reactions in the atmosphere, smog, and major atmospheric pollutants. Students also get detailed information about acid rain, depletion of the ozone layer, greenhouse effect, and global warming. The chapter also introduces green chemistry as an alternative tool for reducing pollution and provides a strategy for control of environmental pollution.