The Class 11 NCERT Biology textbook strengthens the ideas introduced in the lower classes by providing a strong foundation for understanding both current knowledge and new developments in the context of underlying biological concepts.
It also provides a deep and thorough explanation of all concepts that are part of the NEET, JEE, medical entrance exams, and various other competitive exams.
The Biology of Class 11 aims also at emphasizing the underlying principles that are common to both animals and plants, as well as highlighting the interrelationships of Biology with other areas of knowledge.
The syllabus of Class 11 Biology :
The Syllabus of Class 11 NCERT Biology textbook consists of Five Units which are as follows:
(i) Diversity of Living Organisms, (ii) Structural Organization in Plants & Animals,(iii) Cell: Structure and Function,(iv) Plant Physiology, and (v) Human Physiology.
These Units cover a total of 22 chapters. The format of the syllabus exhibits a simple, clear, sequential flow of concepts without any rasping jumps.
Unit 1 Diversity of the living organisms.
Diversity of the living organisms deals with different domains of plant and animal world. The chapters under the unit give a detailed account of the classification of plants and animals. Besides different types of classification of the living world, the unit also covers rules of biological nomenclature and tools for the study of Taxonomy.
Unit 2 Structural Organization in Plants & Animals
Structural Organization in Plants & Animals discusses morphology, anatomy, and functions of different parts of flowering plants, which also makes an important part of the practical syllabus. This unit also covers the morphology, anatomy, and function of different systems like the digestive, circulatory, respiratory, nervous, and reproductive systems of earthworm, cockroach, and frog.
Unit 3 Cell: Structure and Function
Cell: Structure and Function takes students to the depth of cell theory, different types of cells, Structure, and functions of different cell organelles. Chemical constituents of living cells and their Structure and function types of cell division.
Unit 4 Plant Physiology
Plant Physiology describes various theories and elementary concepts of Botany like Transport of water and translocation of food in plants, Mineral nutrition & their role; Photosynthesis, Respiration, Plant growth and development
Unit 5 Human Physiology
Human Physiology provides a humungous account of the fundamental processes of human physiology like Digestion and absorption, Breathing and Respiration, Body fluids and circulation, Excretory system, Skeletal system, Neural control, and coordination. Chapters under this unit also form a very significant part of the practical syllabus.
List of all Chapters of Class 11 Biology:
There are a total of 22 chapters in Class 11 Biology NCERT textbook, which are as follows:
- Chapter-1: The Living World
- Chapter-2: Biological Classification
- Chapter-3: Plant Kingdom
- Chapter-4: Animal Kingdom
- Chapter-5: Morphology of Flowering Plants
- Chapter-6: Anatomy of Flowering Plants
- Chapter-7: Structural Organisation in Animals
- Chapter-8: Cell-The Unit of Life
- Chapter-9: Biomolecules
- Chapter-10: Cell Cycle and Cell Division
- Chapter-11: Transport in Plants
- Chapter-12: Mineral Nutrition
- Chapter-13: Photosynthesis in Higher Plants
- Chapter-14: Respiration in Plants
- Chapter-15: Plant – Growth and Development
- Chapter-16: Digestion and Absorption
- Chapter-17: Breathing and Exchange of Gases
- Chapter-18: Body Fluids and Circulation
- Chapter-19: Excretory Products and Their Elimination
- Chapter-20: Locomotion and Movement
- Chapter-21: Neural Control and Coordination
- Chapter-22: Chemical Coordination and Integration
Chapter-wise Introduction :
Below given are the Chapter-wise Introduction of Class 11 NCERT Biology textbook.
Chapter-1 The Living World
This Chapter of Biology of NCERT Class 11 textbook attempts to establish the definition of living based on biological parameters. The chapter covers the needs and methods of classification. It also gives a short and compendious account of the rules of binomial nomenclature. The chapter aims to introduce the basics of taxonomy like identification, naming, and classification of organisms. Apart from the brief account of Taxonomic categories and it’s the hierarchical arrangement, students also learn about various taxonomic aids like Herbarium, Botanical garden, Museum, Zoological Park, and Key.
Chapter-2 Biological Classification.
The chapter discusses the remarkable attempts and contributions of Aristotle and Linnaeus in the field of classification. The chapter focuses on the Five Kingdom Classification proposed by R.H. Whittaker (1969). The chapter covers an in-depth discussion on the characteristics of Kingdoms Monera, Protista, and Fungi of the Whittaker system of classification. The Kingdoms Plantae and Animalia are dealt with separately in chapters 3 and 4. Acellular organisms like viruses and viroids, and lichens, are briefly introduced at the end of the chapter.
Chapter-3 Plant Kingdom:
This chapter deals in detail with further classification within Kingdom Plantae. The chapter includes the classification of Plantae under Algae, Bryophytes, Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms, and Angiosperms. Students learn salient features of different classes in the chapter. It also describes Plant life cycles and alternation of generation briefly.
Chapter- 4 Animal Kingdom:
The chapter discusses fundamental features common to various individuals that are used as the basis of animal classification like the arrangement of cells, body symmetry, nature of coelom, patterns of digestive, circulatory, or reproductive systems, etc. Along with the keen details and salient features of each sub-class students learn the broad classification of Kingdom Animalia based on common fundamental features.
Chapter-5 Morphology of Flowering Plants:
It showcases the morphological account of different parts of plants like the root, stem, leaf, inflorescence, flower, fruit, seed that exhibit enormous variation in shape, size, structure, mode of nutrition, life span, habit, and habitat. Apart from the description of some important families of angiosperms, the chapter also introduces the new concept of floral diagrams and floral formula to the students.
Chapter-6 Anatomy of Flowering Plants:
This chapter deals with Anatomical similarities as well as differences in flowering plants. This chapter introduces us to the internal structure and functional organization of higher plants. It covers different types of tissues and tissue systems in flowering plants, the anatomy of dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous plants, and secondary growth in different parts of flowering plants.
Chapter-7 Structural Organisations In Animals:
The chapter discusses various types of tissues, organs, and organ systems in multicellular organisms based on their functions. Students learn the morphology and anatomy of earthworm, cockroach, and frog representing invertebrates and vertebrates in this chapter.
Chapter-8 CELL: The Unit Of Life:
The chapter encompasses the definition of the cell, shortly described cell theory, comparative account of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells, different cell organelles, and their functions. The chapter also covers brief details about chromosomes and their types based on the position of the centromere.
In this biochemistry chapter students are exposed to methods to analyze the chemical composition of organic compounds, Primary and Secondary Metabolites. The chapter provides in-depth details about Biomacromolecules, Proteins, Polysaccharides, Nucleic Acids, Structure of Proteins, Nature of Bond Linking Monomers in a Polymer Dynamic State of Body Constituents, Concept of Metabolism, Metabolic Basis for Living, The Living State, Enzymes.
Chapter- 10 Cell cycle and Cell division:
The chapter focuses on genetically controlled events of the cell cycle, different phases of the cell cycle, detailed description of Mitosis-Meiosis, and their significance in the cell cycle.
Chapter-11 Transport in Plants:
The chapter provides brief accounts of the theories and processes that facilitate transport in plants. The subtopics covered under the chapters are Means of Transport, Plant-Water Relations, Long Distance Transport of Water, Transpiration, Uptake and Transport of Mineral Nutrients, and Phloem transport.
Chapter- 12 Mineral Nutrition:
The chapter introduces methods to study the mineral requirements of plants, provides brief details about essential mineral elements, mechanism of absorption of elements, translocation of solutes, soil as a reservoir of essential elements, and metabolism of nitrogen.
Chapter- 13 Photosynthesis in Higher plants:
Chapter showcases the journey of experiments in order to understand the process of photosynthesis in higher plants. The chapter eloquently explains the structure of the photosynthetic machinery and students also learn various reactions that transform light energy into chemical energy.
Chapter- 14 Respiration In Plants:
The chapter covers the different pathways involved in anaerobic and aerobic respirations like Glycolysis, fermentation, TCA cycle, and electron transport system (ETS). Students also learn energy relations and calculation of the number of ATP molecules generated during different types of respiration. The chapter also gives brief details about Amphibolic pathways and Respiratory quotient.
Chapter-15: Plant – Growth and Development:
The chapter strengthens pre-requisite knowledge regarding Seed germination and introduces students to different phases of plant growth and plant growth rate. The chapter encompasses conditions of growth, Differentiation, dedifferentiation, and redifferentiation of Plant cells. Students learn a sequence of developmental processes in a plant cell and the role of growth regulators like auxin, gibberellin, cytokinin, ethylene, ABA, etc. Seed dormancy, Vernalisation, and Photoperiodism are also briefly covered under the chapter.
Chapter-16: Digestion and Absorption:
The chapter provides the detailed account of the human digestive system, different organs, and digestive glands that are part of the digestive system . Students also learn about the role of digestive enzymes and gastrointestinal hormones, Peristalsis, the process of digestion, absorption, assimilation of Biomacromolecules and process of Egestion. The chapter also showcases a compendious account of Nutritional and digestive disorders like PEM, indigestion, constipation, vomiting, jaundice, and diarrhea.
Chapter-17: Breathing and Exchange of Gases:
The chapter focuses on the Respiratory system in humans, the mechanism of breathing, and its regulation in humans. Students also learn about Respiratory volumes and various disorders related to respiration like Asthma, Emphysema, Occupational respiratory disorders, etc.
Chapter-18: Body Fluids and Circulation:
This chapter provides detailed learning about the composition of blood, blood groups, and coagulation of blood. The chapter also covers the Composition of lymph and its function, Human circulatory system, Cardiac cycle, cardiac output, the function of ECG, and Double circulation. Students also get a brief knowledge about the regulation of cardiac activity and disorders of the circulatory systems like Hypertension, Coronary artery disease, Angina pectoris, and Heart failure.
Chapter-19: Excretory Products and Their Elimination:
Students learn about different modes of excretion and the Human excretory system. The chapter also encircles the process of Urine formation, Osmoregulation, Regulation of kidney function, Atrial Natriuretic Factor, ADH, and Diabetes insipidus. This chapter also provides brief information about the Role of other organs in excretion and related Disorders like Uraemia, Renal failure, renal calculi, Nephritis, etc. The chapter also covers the process of Dialysis and the role of an artificial kidney.
Chapter-20: Locomotion and Movement:
This chapter deals with different types of movement, Skeletal muscle and muscle contraction, Skeletal system, and its functions and different types of Joints. Students also learn disorders of muscular and skeletal systems like Myasthenia gravis, Tetany, Muscular dystrophy, Arthritis, Osteoporosis, and Gout briefly.
Chapter-21: Neural Control and Coordination:
Chapter eloquently explains the structure and functions of Neuron and nerves. Students develop an in-depth understanding of the types and mechanisms of the Nervous system in humans. The chapter also covers related topics like the Generation and conduction of nerve impulse, Reflex action, Sensory perception, the role of different Sense organs, Elementary structure, and function of eye and ear.
Chapter-22: Chemical Coordination and Integration:
Students learn about the role of Endocrine glands and hormones and a detailed account of the human endocrine system. The chapter also covers the role of Hypothalamus, Pituitary, Pineal, Thyroid, Parathyroid, Adrenal, Pancreas, and Gonads. Students also get elementary ideas about the mechanism of hormone action and related disorders like Hypo-and hyperactivity and Common disorders e.g. Dwarfism, Acromegaly, Cretinism, Goitre, exophthalmic goiter, diabetes, and Addison’s disease.